Map of Western Hemisphere 1744 – Atlas Novus “Totius Americae Septentrionalis et Meridionalis Novissima Repraesentatio quam ex Singulis Recentium Geographorum Tabulis Collecta Luci Publicae Accomodavit”, Homann, Johann Baptist This attractive map is a revision of the elder Homann’s 1710 map of the Americas. After his death in 1724, his son […]
From the 16th century, the historical cartography of Brazil begins with the first representations that are part of the planispheres or maps of the Americas in editions of Ptolemy’s Geography and works by travellers.
These representations of Brazil have illustrations of indigenous scenes, fauna and vegetation, information obtained, at first, through Américo Vespúcio, who accompanied the first Portuguese expeditions to the Brazilian territory, and, later, through travellers and navigators.
The cartography of this period also records the first names of the country: Terra de Santa Cruz, Terra Incógnita, Antropófagos, Terra dos Papagaios and Brasil. These maps were produced by cartographers such as Ruysch, Waldseemüller, Ortelius, Ruscelli, Forlani, Gastaldi and Hulsius. Still in the 16th century, the concern with the French attacks on the Brazilian coast began.
Examples of these episodes can be found in Gastaldi’s maps, exposing the barter between the French navigators and the Brazilian natives, and in the works of the religious and cosmographer André Thevet, who accompanied Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon during the time he was in Rio de Janeiro, with the foundation of the French Antarctic colony.
Between 1580 and 1640, Portugal was part of the Iberian Union, under the Filipino dynasty.
Thus, all the Portuguese colonies also belonged to the Spanish Crown, which favoured the presence of the French, English and Dutch on the northern and north-eastern coast of Brazil.
To defend the Iberian domains in America, the Philippine Crown allowed the Luso-Brazilians to go beyond the limits established by the Treaty of Tordesillas, advancing towards the Amazon delta.
These conquests are recorded in the 17th century Portuguese cartography, by the notable astronomers Cochado and Albernaz I, showing the forts built and the cities founded, as well as the English and Dutch fortifications destroyed.
Still referring to the 17th century, the Portuguese handwritten cartography is displayed, with the charts of Antônio Vicente Cochado, Antônio Sanches, João Teixeira Albernaz I and his grandson João Albernaz II.
All maps detail toponyms richly located on the coast, from Belém to the Rio da Prata.
The map of Brazil by Albernaz II (1666) deserves, however, to be highlighted because, besides having, like the others, a large quantity of toponyms on the Brazilian coast, it highlights the city of São Paulo and, in the south of the territory, the Jesuit missions.
I could not fail to show the beautiful Dutch cartography of north-eastern Brazil, between 1624-1654.
The map, Perfect Caerte der Gelegentheyt van Olinda de Pharnambuco Maurits-stadt ende t’Reciffo and made by Cornelis Golijath, is considered the best cartographic production under Dutch rule in north-eastern Brazil.
In the 18th century, there is a sketch about the Luso-Brazilian explorations of the Brazilian interior, which is part of the set “Cartas Sertanistas” (Letters from the Backlands) (Cortesão, 1957-1971).
These sketches, existing in the National Library, indicate Jesuit missions destroyed by sertanistas and/or bandeirantes and roads in search of mineral wealth in the interior of Brazil.
Still from the 18th century, we also find French cartography, which became predominant in that period with the foundation of the Royal Academy of Sciences by Colbert and the construction of the astronomical observatory in Paris.
Among the cartographers chosen were Guillaume de L’Isle and Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d’Anville, author of one of the best eighteenth-century charts representing South America.
The notoriety of Guillaume de L’Isle is due to the fact that he observed errors of the Portuguese in the calculations of the longitudes of Brazil.
A member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of France, Guillaume de L’Isle, in 1720, noted that the Portuguese calculations exceeded the Lusitanian domains in South America according to the Treaty of Tordesillas.
As is well known, the Iberian Crowns sought a solution to the question of the boundaries of their domains in South America.
The result of these negotiations was the Treaty of Madrid, signed in January 1750.
One of the original copies of the Map of the Cortes, the cartographic document that served as the basis for the treaty, is part of the exhibition.
Thus, mixed commissions were formed to survey and demarcate the borders of the northern and southern regions in South America. Portugal and Spain hired specialists (cosmographers, astronomers, military and other specialists) from various European nations to carry out these tasks.
From these works, a significant amount of cartographic documents (maps, views, reports, diaries) were produced.
The exhibition displays part of this collection produced by the members of these mixed commissions on the Portuguese side.
The 19th century begins with two leaves from the handwritten atlas Guia dos Caminhantes, made by Anastácio de Santana, in Salvador (1817).
The first, the title page, contains geographical data and a panoramic view of the city of Salvador.
The second is a map of Brazil with the north facing the right bank. Besides being didactic, this atlas represents one of the first initiatives in the mapping of Brazil.
In this period, cartographic production increases. Maps of provinces and of the national territory, topographic plans, hydrographic surveys of the rivers, of the Amazon and Prata basins and frontier charts are composed.
In the twentieth century, after resolving several border issues over four centuries, and with the national territory already configured, the route ends with the Carta geographica do Brasil (Geographic Chart of Brazil), on the scale 1:7,500,000, published by the Engineering Club in 1922, in commemoration of the centenary of Brazil’s Independence.
This map is the reduction of the letter of Brazil in the International Letter of the World to the Millionth, made according to international standards established at the International Congress of Geography in Paris in 1913.
Map of Western Hemisphere – America 1631 – Nouveau Theatre du Monde Hondius’ Decorative Map of the Americas in Full Contemporary Color “America Noviter Delineata”, Hondius, Henricus This beautiful and popular map of the Americas was emulated by numerous cartographers and went through various editions. Originally issued by Jodocus Hondius II […]
Western Hemisphere – America 1587 – Theatrum Orbis Terrarum Ortelius’ Influential Map of the New World “Americae sive Novi Orbis, Nova Descriptio”, Ortelius, Abraham This is one of the most famous maps of America and one that had enormous influence on the future cartography of the New World. Frans Hogenberg engraved […]
Western Hemisphere – America 1700 circa – Historical Map Allard’s Elaborate Map of the Western Hemisphere in Full Contemporary Color “Recentissima Novi Orbis, sive Americae Septentrionalis et Meridionalis Tabula”, Allard, Carel Sumptuous map of the Americas features a dramatically decorative title cartouche showing an Amazonian queen surrounded by riches, a sugar […]
Western Hemisphere – America 1719 (circa) Spectacular Wall Map Celebrating the New World “Carte Tres Curieuse de la Mer du Sud Contenant des Remarques Nouvelles et Tres Utiles non Seulement sur les Ports et Iles de Cette Mer…”, Chatelain, Henry Abraham This spectacular wall map is richly engraved in the […]
Western Hemisphere – America 1730 (circa) – Historical Map “Totius Americae Septentrionalis et Meridionalis Novissima Repraesentatio quam ex Singulis Recentium Geographorum Tabulis Collecta Luci Publicae Accomodavit”, Homann, Johann Baptist This attractive map is a revision of the elder Homann’s 1710 map of the Americas. After his death in 1724, his […]
Western Hemisphere – America 1740 (circa) – Historical Map “Novus Orbis sive America Meridionalis et Septentrionalis, per sua Regna Provincias et Insulas Iuxta Observationes et Descriptiones Recentiss. Divisa et Adornata…”, Seutter, Matthias This striking map of the Americas features a prominent island of California based on the second Sanson model, with two indented […]
South America 1638 – Publication: Atlas Novus – Historical Map “Americae Pars Meridionalis”, Hondius, Henricus This is an important, decorative map of the continent is a foundation piece for any South American collection. The coastlines are well detailed but the interior is filled with spurious information. Several rivers (including the Amazon […]
South America 1694 (circa) – Historical Map “L’Amerique Meridionale Divisee en ses Principales Parties”, Jaillot, Alexis-Hubert This handsome map of the continent is decorated with elaborate title and scale of miles cartouches balancing the lower portion of the map bearing images of Native Americans, flora and fauna. One cartouche encloses the […]
Map of Northern South America 1730 – Historical Map “Carte de la Terre Ferme du Perou, du Bresil et du Pays des Amazones, Dressee sur les Descriptions de Herrera…”, Delisle/Covens & Mortier This handsome and important map of the northern part of South America is filled with information and notations speculating […]
Map of Olinda – Brazil 1640 – Historical Map “[Povo [with] Villa d Olinda d Pernambuco]”, Commelin, Isaac These splendid views illustrate the Dutch attack on the Portuguese city of Olinda in 1630. Throughout most of the seventeenth century Portugal and Holland had a commercial agreement in which the Portuguese colonies […]
Map of South America – East Coast Brazil Ilha Grande & Sapetiba Bays 1884 Handsome, large-scale sea chart of the region just west of Rio de Janeiro. Complete with soundings, anchorages, and navigational hazards. At bottom is a view of Ilha Grande and Eastern Passage. The chart was first drawn […]
Map of Brazil 1823 – Historical Map A detailed map of Brazil depicting cities, regions, mountains, and the extensive river system. Lucas’ General Atlas is known as one of the finest general atlases produced in the U.S. at the time, due to the high quality paper, superior engraving quality, and attractive coloring […]
Map of Brazil 1832 – The London Atlas of Universal Geography – Historical Map “Brazil”, Arrowsmith, John This map of Brazil is dense with detail. It divides the country into provinces and names towns and cities, rivers, natives, and more. Portuguese, English, Dutch, and French Guyana appear north of Brazil. Portions […]
The historical maps show the evolution and territorial expansion of Brazil and the Western Hemisphere from the discovery to the independence of Brazil. Learn about the historical facts that made Brazil emerge from a continental archipelago. When Pedro Álvares Cabral landed on the coast of the land that would become […]
Fort Nassau – Pernambuco – Brazil 1671 – De Nieuwe en Onbekende Weereld “Arx Nassovii”, Montanus, Arnoldus Montanus’ work was perhaps the greatest illustrated book on the New World produced in the seventeenth century. It contained over one hundred beautifully engraved plates, views, and maps of North and South America. The […]