Northeastern culture is made up of the states of Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará, Maranhão, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte and Sergipe and presents a great cultural diversity, such as art, architecture, literature, geography, music and cuisine.
Northeastern culture is quite diverse, as it was influenced by indigenous peoples, Africans and Europeans. Customs and traditions often vary from state to state.
Having been the first region effectively colonized by the Portuguese, still in the XNUMXth century, who found the native populations there and were accompanied by Africans brought as slaves, the Northeastern culture is quite particular and typical, although extremely varied. Its base is Luso-Brazilian, with great African influences, especially on the coast from Pernambuco to Bahia and Maranhão, and Amerindians, especially in the semi-arid hinterland.
The cultural wealth of the northeast region is visible beyond its folkloric and popular manifestations.
Northeastern literature has made a great contribution to the Brazilian literary scene, highlighting names such as João Cabral de Melo Neto, José de Alencar, Jorge Amado, Nelson Rodrigues, Rachel de Queiroz, Gregório de Matos, Clarice Lispector, Graciliano Ramos, Ferreira Gullar and Manuel Bandeira, among many others.
In literature, one can cite popular cordel literature dating back to the colonial period (cordel literature came with the Portuguese and has its origins in the European Middle Ages) and numerous artistic manifestations of a popular nature that manifest themselves orally, such as the singers of sudden and lumpy.
In classical music, Alberto Nepomuceno and Paurillo Barroso stood out as composers, as well as Liduíno Pitombeira from Ceará today, and Eleazar de Carvalho as conductor. Northeastern rhythms and melodies also inspired composers such as Heitor Villa-Lobos (whose Bachiana Brasileira nº 5, for example, in its second part – Dança do Martelo – alludes to the Sertão do Cariri).
In popular music in Northeastern culture, rhythms such as coco, xaxado, hammer agalopado, samba de roda, baião, xote, forró, Axé and frevo, among other rhythms, stand out. The armorial movement of Recife, inspired by Ariano Suassuna, did an erudite work of valuing this popular Northeastern rhythmic heritage (one of its best-known exponents is the singer Antônio Nóbrega).
In dance in the Northeastern culture, the highlights are the maracatu, practiced in different parts of the Northeast, the frevo (characteristic of Pernambuco), the bumba-meu-boi, the xaxado, several variants of forró, the tambor-de-crioula (characteristic of the Maranhao), etc. Folk music is almost always accompanied by dancing.
Handicraft is also a relevant part of the culture of the Northeast, being even the livelihood of thousands of people throughout the region. Due to the regional variety of handicraft traditions, it is difficult to characterize them all, but the woven and sometimes embroidered hammocks stand out in great detail; products made from clay, wood (for example, from carnauba, a tree typical of the sertão) and leather, with very particular features; in addition to lace, which gained prominence in Ceará crafts. Another highlight are the bottles with images made by hand in colored sand, an item produced for sale to tourists. In Maranhão, handicrafts made from buriti fiber (palm tree) stand out, as well as handicrafts and products from babaçu (palm tree native to Maranhão).