History and Chronology of the Carnival of Salvador da Bahia

Salvador Carnival BA 1939
Salvador Carnival BA 1939

There are several versions about the origin of the word Carnival.

In the Milanese dialect, Carnevale means “the time in which the use of meat is removed”, since Carnival is exactly the night before Ash Wednesday.

In Brazil, the event is the biggest manifestation of popular culture, next to football.

It is a mixture of revelry, party and theatrical show, which involves art and folklore.

In its origin, it appears basically as a street party. However, in most large capitals, it ends up concentrated in closed spaces, such as sambadromes and clubs.

Although the carnival was only made official in 1884, there are reports of festivities since the 1624th and XNUMXth century, including during the Dutch invasion in XNUMX.

Salvador carnival, which counts from 1884, which is when it was made official. But I went back a little. So I start by showing Father Anchieta's account of carnival, the Jesuits, who were the first people who brought the culture of carnival to Bahia. There is also the account of a soldier during the Dutch invasion, in 1624, who tells how carnival was when we were at war, that the party was held on four ships”.

The festivities were mirrored in the carnival held in Europe, mainly in countries like Portugal and Spain, and were related to the Catholic Church.

“Carnival was instituted by the Catholic Church as a period to precede Lent so that people could pour out everything they wanted and then enter the 40-day retreat.

The Jesuits brought this culture and introduced it among indigenous communities as part of catechesis, because they understood that it was interesting to bring a little music, a little of that more playful thing”.

Between the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, Carnival became more popular and took to the streets of the Bahian capital.

The festivities usually took place on Rua Chile, in downtown Salvador. “As they had many slaves, they brought their dances, some ritual elements that ended up being incorporated into the street carnival. This all came together with what was called Shrovetide”.

History, Origin and Chronology of Carnival 

Origin of Carnival

The origin of Carnival comes from a popular manifestation before the Christian era, having started in Italy with the name of Saturnálias – a festival in honor of Saturn.

The deities of Greco-Roman mythology Bacchus and Momo shared the honors in the festivities, which took place in the months of November and December.

During the celebrations in Rome, there was an apparent breakdown of the hierarchy of society, as slaves, philosophers and tribunes mingled in the public square.

With the expansion of the Roman Empire, the parties became more lively and frequent. There were real bacchanals at the time.

At the beginning of the Christian era, the first signs of censorship of worldly festivities began to appear as the Catholic Church solidified. Wanting to impose a policy of austerity, the church determined that these festivities should only be held before Lent.

The Italians then adopted the word Carnevale, suggesting that Carnival could be done – “or whatever came to mind” before Lent, in a kind of abuse of meat.

The festival arrived in Portugal in the XNUMXth and XNUMXth centuries, receiving the name of Entrudo – that is, introduction to Lent, through aggressive and heavy play.

The event had an essentially gastronomic character and was marked by entertainment interspersed with some violence. Very thin wax spheres were made with the inside filled with scent water and then people were thrown.

The most daring, however, began to inject bad-smelling and inappropriate substances inside the “little oranges or lemons”, and the party began to lose its joy. It was exactly this violent Entrudo that arrived in Brazil.

In the second half of the XNUMXth century, the newspaper Diário da Bahia and the Catholic Church criticized and asked the police authorities to take action against the Entrudo.

History of Carnival in Brazil

When the Sunday before Lent approached, everyone “entruda” (intruda). The “Caretas” appeared on the streets in the form of flocks, wrapped in blankets, catolé mats, tree leaves and abadás – a kind of short-sleeved shirt that was very loose, reaching the bend of the knees, which the blacks wore.

at Shrovetide, everyone who walked the streets was wet, houses were invaded to wet people and it didn't matter if they were sick or elderly people.

In 1853, Shrovetide began to be repressed with police orders. Even so, the “little oranges” and water troughs continued to exist.

Entrudos is one of the elements of the beginning of Salvador's carnival.

Entrudos was a game of European origin in which people threw objects at each other. “They made some wax lemons and put water or some kind of cinnamon or clove perfume inside and threw them at people.

In fact, they had two types of carnivals, the salon and the street. The salon one was this one, more refined, with the lemons. The street food was made with pure water, pork guts, flour, egg, poor tomato. It was more popular and vulgar.”

Due to the inconvenience caused by the carnivals, the government began to repress and prohibit the game. A decree by the Salvador City Council ended the practice.

“For the greater knowledge of all the inhabitants of this municipality, the posture that absolutely prohibits Shrovetide is reproduced because it is harmful to public health, dangerous to those who indulge in it and to passersby”, says an excerpt from the decree published at that time.

It was exactly in this period that the Carnival began to originate in a different way, being divided into two classes: the Hall Carnival and the Street Carnival.

O Hall Carnival it had the participation of whites and middle-class mulattos; The Street carnival, had poor blacks and mulattos.

Castro Alves Square, São João Theater and Chile Street
Castro Alves Square, São João Theater and Chile Street in Salvador da Bahia.

In 1860 the São João Theater in Salvador da Bahia started to hold bold masked balls on Saturday night, starting the parties with music based on excerpts from the Italian opera “La Traviata”. Then waltzes, polkas and quadrilles were played.

The São João Theater, in Salvador (BA), was located at Praça Castro Alves, at the end of Av. Seven and beginning of Rua Chile. It was built in 1806, under the government of João Saldanha da Gama Melo Torres, according to a plan established by Marques de Pombal and for over a hundred years it was the main stage of the city, with a capacity for 800 seats. In 1913 it was completely destroyed by fire.

The event counted on the participation of people of good social standing, who exchanged the balls held in their homes for those in the theater.

At the time, there was the danger of the educated man and the businessman being seen masked. As a result, costume houses and hairdressers, such as the famous “Pinelli” and “Balalaia” maintained disguise specialists.

As carnival balls were not available to everyone, nor according to the morality of many, it was necessary to encourage them to go to the street. Therefore, the sub-delegates were allowed to distribute masks free of charge to anyone who wanted to play Carnival.

Several commissions came to be appointed by the chief of police and the central commission, along with other parish commissions that distributed masks, facilitated the acquisition of other props, as well as the provision of a music band.

Merchants soon adhered to the idea, with an eye on the best revenue, and began to adopt Carnival instead of Entrudo.

In 1870 single masquerades, encouraged by the police, and public dances began to gain ground, although the Entrudo was still alive.

The environment for the realization of Carnival began to improve with the emergence of the “Bando Anuncador”, which took to the streets inviting everyone to the festivities.

In clubs and theaters, competitions emerged between groups and families who wore clothes and jewelry to show which associations and entities were more elegant and fine.

The pioneer Teatro São João started to organize its balls a year in advance.

In 1878, the street Carnival group, “Os Cavaleiros da Noite”, appeared for the first time in a large hall at Teatro São João, causing a real “ti, ti, ti”. Two years later – with a greater number of balls throughout the city – Salvador had 120 inhabitants, who concentrated financial resources and great political power.

There was, therefore, money, power and plenty, and all this splendor began to be portrayed in Carnival halls and balls. Just to give you an idea, the clothes, props, ornaments, hats, drinks, jewelry, shoes and socks used at the parties were imported from the best houses in Paris and London.

Five years before the Proclamation of the Republic, the city, inhabited by around 170 people, organized its first major street Carnival.

Carnival was a party with great European influence, like almost everything that existed in Brazil at that time, with luxury, refinement and laudatory comments.

Venice Carnival

Strongly influenced by the exquisite Carnival of Venice, in Italy, and mixing the presence of types from the popular Carnival of Nice, in France, Salvador Carnival took the first step towards popularization with the participation of many people in the streets.

At the same time, platforms and music bands proliferated in the city. There were also several uniformed clubs, such as “Zé Pereira”, “Os Comilões” and “Os Engenheiros”, dressed in “Cabeçorras” and other masks.

As the celebrations grew, it was agreed that Campo Grande would be the place for masked people to gather on Carnival days and, from there, leave in groups.

In 1882, the commerce started the custom of closing its doors on Shrove Tuesday, from 13 pm. The Carnival of masks and the parade of clubs were then more animated after 14 pm.

Origins and evolution of Carnival in Rio de Janeiro

The first Carnival ball in Rio was in 1840 with participants dancing polka and waltz, and samba was introduced in 1917. 

Salvador da Bahia Carnival Chronology

The Great Carnival of 1884

O year 1884 is considered as the turning point for the Carnival of Bahia. Although the party already had a considerable size – mainly in the halls – it was in this year that the organization of street festivities and the parades of clubs, corsos, floats and various popular ones began.

From then on, the people's participation intensified and the street Carnival acclaimed, which still characterizes this festival in Bahia.

The Carnival of 1884 caught Salvador in a period of rapid growth, provoked by the progress of agriculture in other regions and by the demands of a better planning of the urban space with the rural exodus.

There was progress and merchants were already using advertising in the newspapers during the party. Both the people who dressed up and those waiting for the procession were dressed up, some in linen suits, leg warmers and hats.

Founded on March 1, 1833, Clube Carnavalesco Cruz Vermelha only participated in Carnival in 1884.

The club organized a procession with richly dressed boys and girls and the novelty was the presence of a float, with the theme “Criticism of the Lottery Game”, richly decorated with pieces imported from Europe.

The procession left one of the streets of Comércio, climbed the Mountain, passed in front of Barroquinha, Direita do Palácio (Chile street), Direita da Misericórdia, Direita do Colégio and returned towards the Politeama de Baixo (Female Institute).

The initiative was a real success and won thousands of applause and flower petals from the people in the streets. The Red Cross basically changed Carnival.

In March 1884, a group of young people founded the Clube Carnavalesco Fantoches da Euterpe.

The group was headed by four high society figures: Antônio Carlos Magalhães Costa (ACM's great-grandfather), João Vaz Agostinho, Francisco Saraiva and Luís Tarquínio. (its first president).

In 1885, the dispute between the two clubs was even greater.

The Diário de Notícias, the most influential newspaper at the time, published a quarter-page advertisement, at the request of the Red Cross, describing his march.

Fantoches reacted by publishing its party program in three columns.

Both took to the streets with wonderful themes and costumes from Europe.

The flagship of the Red Cross presented “A Fama” and the Puppets, “A Europa”. Other clubs also paraded, such as “Corkscrew”, “Cavalheiros de Malta”, “Clube dos Cacetes” and “Grupo dos Nenês”.

At the time, there was no judging commission to establish who won the parades and the judgment was determined by the press, which measured the approval of the population through applause.

The more popular Red Cross always won, as the Fantoches, more connected to the aristocracy, had a much smaller fan base. All other entities represented the middle class.

In 1886, the dealers decide not to open the commerce on Shrove Tuesday. The presidents of the big clubs met in the Commercial Association with the aim of studying a single itinerary for all the services.

Two years later, the city had one of the most famous carnivals. The Red Cross and Fantoches, together, gave a grandiose ball at the Politeama. Finally, the day of the great Sunday of Carnival arrived.

And there were many people in the streets; at the windows, what reigned most in the city was anxiety. The first service to appear was the Red Cross with coordination, splendor and luxury.

The crowd cheered, throwing flowers over the cars.

The second to parade was the Fantoches procession, with its magnificent decoration of floats, grace, luxury and artistic taste, which justified everyone's delirium. Result: Puppets and the Red Cross parading over showers of roses.

Carnival was already a real attraction, a reality achieved with a lot of struggle and years of hope and it could already be said that Carnival had definitely won it.

In 1892 is introduced in the country's Carnival, the use of confetti and streamers. Confetti was used in carvings among some carnival entities of the time; streamers came to replace the flowers thrown on the floats.

In 1894, Carnival was eminently for the elite of the clubs Cruz Vermelha, Fantoches and others, who paraded through the streets and attended the balls of the São João and Politeama Theaters. The poor population continued to make only a few demonstrations.

first afoxé

In 1895, the black Nagô organized the first afoxé, called the “African Embassy”, which paraded with clothes and ornaments imported from Africa.

In 1896, then came the second afoxé, the “Pândegos da África”, also organized by blacks. The groups represented African heritage houses of worship and took to the streets singing and reciting sequences of songs and lyrics.

the afoxes they performed in Baixa dos Sapateiros, Taboão, Barroquinha and Pelourinho, while the big clubs paraded in more upscale areas.

Nine years later, another afoxé broke this tacit commitment and climbed Barroquinha and Ladeira de São Bento, generating protests in which the breach of this unwritten pact of the spatial division of classes and rhythms in Carnival was regretted.

At this moment, there was a very serious spatial division in the city.

Salvador Carnival BA 1939

Red Cross dissidents, founded in 1900, the Carnival Club “Os Inocentes em Progresso”. The club's name was inspired by a band of boys who passed by singing and playing on cans.

In 1949, year of the IV Centenary of the foundation of the city of Salvador, the afoxé “Filhos de Gandhy” is founded by the dockers of the Port of Salvador, as a way of honoring the great Indian pacifist leader assassinated in 1948, Mahatma Gandhy.

The Electric Trio is born

In 1950, then came the famous electric duo.

Replica of the 1929 Ford made in 1975 to celebrate Salvador's first electric trio car created by Dodô and Osmar in 1950.
Replica of the 1929 Ford made in 1975 to celebrate Salvador's first electric trio car created by Dodô and Osmar in 1950.

After watching the parade of the famous “Vassourinha”, a carnival entity from Pernambuco that played frevo on Rua Chile, and excited by the receptivity of the block to the public, the electric duo formed by Adolfo Antônio Nascimento – Dodo and Osmar – Álvares de Macêdo e Osmar – decided to restore an old 1929 Ford, kept in a garage.

At the Carnival of the same year, he took to the streets playing his “electric sticks” on top of the car and with the sound amplified by loudspeakers.

The performance took place at five o'clock in the afternoon of Carnival Sunday, drawing a crowd through the streets of downtown.

The name Trio Elétrico appeared in 1951., when, for the first time, a group of three instrumentalists performed at Carnival.

The “electric duo” invited their friend and musician Temístocles Aragão to join the trio and play in the streets of Salvador in a Chrysler pickup truck, Fargo model, bigger than the “phobica” of the previous year, on whose sides were read two signs: “O electric trio”.

Osmar played the famous “Bahian guitar”, with a high pitch; Dodô was responsible for the “electric-pau guitar”, with a low sound, and Aragão, for the “triolim”, as the tenor guitar was known, with a medium sound. The musical trio was formed.

Appears in 1961, the first public parade of King Momo, role played by the taxi driver and civil servant Ferreirinha.

In the following year, the first large Carnival group appeared, called “Os Internacionais”, composed only of men.

At that time, a new electric trio popped up all the time, but the blocks went to the streets accompanied only by drums or percussion groups.

It was there that the famous ropes and shrouds to play Carnival also appeared.

In 1965, by presidential decree, the manufacture, sale and use of the perfume launcher was prohibited., introduced in our Carnival since 1906, imported initially from France and later from Argentina.

Carnival in the 70's

the 70's made the heyday of Salvador's Carnival to be the Castro Alves Square, where all the people met and allowed themselves to do everything. It was the time of cultural, social and sexual liberation.

Until this time, the trios electricians were more allegorical vehicles, ornamented almost exclusively with sedan mouths of loudspeakers.

The amplifiers were made with valves and, on top of the trio, there were only musicians with the Bahian guitar, bass and guitar, without the figure of the vocalist.

Even in the 70s, Morals Moreira gave voice to the trio, singing Pombo Correio and the “Novos Baianos” dared and put some speakers in the trio, in addition to transistorized equipment.

Baby Consuelo appeared singing with a microphone connected to a guitar cable.

The carnival composition “Colombina”, by Armando Sá and Miquel Brito, is officially recognized as the anthem of Salvador's Carnival.

As if such a change were not enough, an even more radical one took place at Carnival 74, with the emergence of the “Afro Ilê Aiyê” group.

The entity that started the re-Africanization process of the party contributed with the appearance of the afoxé “Badauê” and the rebirth of the afoxé “Filhos de Gandhy”.

It was the beginning of the cultural growth of Salvador's Carnival; which began to emphasize conflicts and protest against racism.

In 1975 the electric trio “Dodô e Osmar” celebrated the silver jubilee and definitively returned to the carnival scene after a period of 14 years away.

The trio returned with a new lineup including musician Armandinho, son of Osmar, and changed the name to “Trio Elétrico de Armandinho, Dodô e Osmar”.

In 1976, the electric trio “Novos Baianos” emerged., introducing, together with the “Trio de Armandinho”, the Bahian swing.

In 1977, the samba schools that participated in the Carnival of Salvador stopped parading.

Although the trio blocks emerged at the beginning of the decade, it was in 1978 that the “Chameleon” began to overcome the amateurism prevailing among the first trio blocks, representing a milestone in their emergence in Salvador's Carnival.

It was in this same year that the use of the mask, once the joy and grace of revelers, began its process of disappearing.

An indispensable accessory to complement Carnival costumes, the mask that in our lives became better known as a grimace, also served to hide the shame of a euphoric face from known and indiscreet eyes.

In 1979, the meeting between the afoxé and the trio Elétrico took place., with the emergence of the song “Assim pintou Moçambique”, by Moraes Moreira and Antônio Risério, thus triggering the entire process of the “electrified” afoxé of current Bahian music.

Carnival in the 1980's

In the early 80's, the transformation of Salvador carnival was even more intensified and it was up to the “Traz Os Montes” block to introduce some innovations, such as the assembly of an electric trio with transistorized equipment, installation of air conditioning to cool and keep the equipment at a tolerable temperature, removal of the speaker mouths , installation of rectangular speakers, elimination of the traditional percussion that was on the sides of the trio and insertion of a band with drums, singer and other musicians on top of the truck.

In 1981, the Eva block, created in 1980 and considered one of the most irreverent and innovative entities of Carnival, decided to radicalize even more than “Traz Os Montes” and hired engineers to sign the structural calculation of the new trio and the entire sound system. imported from the United States (such as a new soundboard and various peripherals necessary for the perfect functioning of the trio and the band). Thus, Eva forced the other blocks to also invest in their trios.

The public and critics began to clearly notice the striking difference between their equipment and the others, as well as the quality of the singers and bands.

In the same year, the governor of Bahia signs Decree No. 27.811, which determines the suspension of working hours in public offices on the Friday of the week before Carnival.

A year later, the presence of so many people on the streets of Salvador was registered that the traditional patrons of Praça Castro Alves (intellectuals, professionals and transvestites) were extremely irritated by the invasion of the traditional liberal stronghold. This year, the shroud began to disappear as a carnival costume, with the option of shorts, shorts or overalls.

In the Carnival of 1983, something around 30 to 40 new rhythms appeared.

In 1988 for the first time, a large Afro group, the Olodum, parades in Barra. The year of the commemoration alluding to the centenary of the abolition of slavery in Brazil, whose theme was “Bahia de All Africas”.

Barra-Ondina Carnival Circuit

The glamorous circuit of the sea, later christened Dodô – Barra-Ondina -, was made official in 1992 and today is one of the most effervescent points of Salvador's Carnival. There are most of the boxes, a new invention of this party that has been changing over the years.

From Entrudo to the Dois Clube and Corsos parades, to the arrival of Afro-Brazilian influence, at first with the Afoxés; and the discovery of the Bahian guitar, which spawned the Trios Elétricos.

With the trios, the explosion of the biggest popular event on the planet – the Carnival of Salvador – multiplies rhythms and beats and enshrines saba-reggae and axé music, producing thousands of musicians and artists who work tirelessly to surprise the millions of revelers who disembark. in the Capital of Joy, coming from all corners of Brazil and the world to experience this magical way of being happy.

Chronology of the Electric Trio in Salvador da Bahia

“The Elétrico Trio, with its anthropophagic sound, carnivalizes everything. From the most popular classics, to the most popular classics.”

Decade of 30

There was a musical group in Salvador, created by Dorival Caymmi, which animated some parties and weekend meetings, and which was performed on radio stations.

The group Três e Meio began to be successful in Bahia, whose members were Caymmi himself, Alberto Costa, Zezinho Rodrigues and Adolfo Nascimento – the Dodô. In 1938, with the departure of Caymmi, the group was restructured and now has seven members, including Osmar Macêdo.

1942

In a presentation in the city of Salvador, classical guitarist Benedito Chaves (RJ) showed for the first time to the local public an “electrified guitar”.

Dodô and Osmar, eager to learn about this instrument, went to watch the show at Cine Guarani and were extremely excited.

Although it was an ordinary guitar, imported and with a pickup inserted into its mouth, the instrument was very primitive and had a microphone.

Dodô, however, tireless in his quest to overcome this problem, built in a few days a guitar just like Benedito Chaves's for himself, and a cavaquinho for Osmar.

Although the feedback persists, the two teamed up once again to form the "Electric Duo" and began performing in various places.

One day, Dodô decided to stretch a guitar string over his workbench and secure it at the ends; under the rope, he placed a microphone attached to the bench.

When the duo turned on the microphone, something unbelievable happened, a clean sound that sounded like a bell. The principle was, then, discovered and it was soon possible to perceive that the “massive cep” avoided the phenomenon of microphony – and thus, with the name of pau eletrico, the Bahian guitar was born.

1943/49

The electric duo then started playing in clubs, parties and balls, with their own instruments.

1950

On the Wednesday before Carnival, the famous “Clube Carnavalesco Vassourinhas do Recife”, with 150 members, performed in Salvador with brass, some wood and little percussion.

On the morning of the day after the presentation by the people of Pernambuco, Dodô and Osmar started working on the construction project of what would become the “Tlétrico Trio”.

Osmar, owner of a mechanic shop, removed a 1929 Ford, known as “Fobica”, from the shed and started the decoration process by painting various colored circles all over the vehicle as if they were confetti, and made two guitar-shaped plywood pieces. signs with the words “Electric Duo”.

Dodô, trained in radio engineering, decided to assemble a “source” that, connected to the current of a car battery, would feed the load for the operation of the speakers installed in the phobica (where they would present themselves with their “Electric Sticks” ).

In the middle of Carnival Sunday, the duo climbed the mountainside towards Praça Castro Alves and Rua Chile, around 16 pm, and dragged thousands of people. Dodô and Osmar, on top of the decorated and electronically equipped phobic, thus made their first appearance as the inventors of the electric trio.

1951

The duo decided to invite their friend and musician Temístocles Aragão to form what would be called an electric trio. The name gained fame, causing, in the following years, people heard the electrifying sound and said: “Here comes the electric trio”.

1952

The soft drink factory “Fratelli Vita” decided to sponsor the electric trio of Dodô and Osmar and the duo abandoned the old phobia and moved to a large vehicle, putting eight speakers, electric current from generators and lighting with fluorescent lamps.

The sponsorship remained until 1957 – when the trio Elétrico from Dodô and Osmar performed in the central streets of Salvador and animated off-season carnivals in the interior of the state.

1953/58

Then, new electric trios appeared playing on trucks such as Ypiranga, Cinco Irmãos, Conjunto Atlas, Jacaré (later called Saborosa) and Paturi (Feira de Santana / BA.)

1956

The musical group Tapajós (mounted on a pickup truck) appears, first follower and largely responsible for the fact that the electric trio, as a physical structure, has remained and expanded as a carnival phenomenon.

1957

The electric trio Tapajós animates Carnival in the Suburbia Ferroviário.

1958

The electric trio Dodô e Osmar won the sponsorship of the Salvador City Hall.

1959

At the invitation of the governor of Pernambuco, the Trio Elétrico de Dodô e Osmar left Bahia for the first time to play at the Recife Carnival, sponsored by “Coca-Cola”.

1960

The electric trio Tapajós buys one of their bodies from Dodô and Osmar.

1961

The electric trio of Dodô and Osmar stopped participating in the Carnival due to the death of Osmar's father-in-law, Armando Costa, the group's biggest supporter.

Tapajós signed the first commercial contract with Coca-Cola to animate the micaretas in the cities of Feira de Santana, Pojuca, Catu and Alagoinhas.

1962

Carnival did not once again have the participation of the trio of Dodô and Osmar; on the other hand, he attended the opening of the Tapajós, parading through the central streets of the City.

1963

With the sponsorship of the Mataripe Refinery, the trio of Dodô and Osmar returned to participate in Salvador's Carnival: it was a float, mounted on a cart.

Armandinho, with only nine years old, was already the soloist of the trio. In the electric trio contest promoted by the City Hall, the winner was the Tapajós trio, with a new all-metal bodywork.

1964

Osmar decided to build a miniature electric trio in a Ford F-1000 pick-up. The contraption was intended for his children and Dodô's children, who were all 12 years old at the most.

The electric trio Tapajós animated the Carnival in Recife (PE) under the sponsorship of Coca-Cola and the Recife Department of Tourism.

1965

The mini-trio of Armadinho and Betinho returned to lead the Carnival of Salvador. The electric trio Tapajós is crowned champion.

1966

The electric trio Tapajós was acclaimed bi-champion.

1967

Tapajós became three times champion of the Carnival of Salvador, in a competition promoted by the City Hall.

1969

Caetano Veloso released the song “Atrás do Trio Elétrico Só Não Vai Quem Já Morreu”.

The Tapajós trio launched the first album recorded by an electric trio on the phonographic market and went to Rio de Janeiro to reinforce the national release of the song.

Within a week, the song went from seventh to second place on the charts and was featured on the television show “A Grande Chance”.

1972

A historic meeting at Praça Castro Alves took place between Osmar – who played in the electric trio Caetanave – and Armandinho, who performed on top of the trio Saborosa, making the “Desafilho”.

Tapajós paid tribute to Caetano Veloso, for his return from exile in London, with the launch of “Caetanave”, a trio with bold architectural lines, a true work of art that, with due proportion of the times, has not been surpassed until today.

In the streets, the public could appreciate the Bahians Gilberto Gil, Caetano Veloso and Gal Costa on top of the trio.

The Marajós electric trio appears.

1973

The Tapajós trio animated the Carnival in the city of Curitiba.

1974

After a long absence, the duo Dodô and Osmar returned to Carnival with a new lineup – “Trio Elétrico Armandinho, Dodô e Osmar”.

At the time, they recorded an album under the title “Jubileu de Prata”, in celebration of the trio's 25th anniversary. Tapajós – who had recorded six LPs and two singles – went to liven up the Belo Horizonte Carnival.

1975

After its debut in 1950, the phobic returned to the streets to celebrate the Silver Jubilee of the electric trio. A great party was organized to honor its inventors, including a parade of several electric trios led by Dodô and Osmar.

Specially assembled and decorated for the parade, the trios left Campo Grande and arrived at Praça Castro Alves, where they performed together the “Happy Birthday to You”. Then, the duo received the trophy commemorating the jubilee for the creation of the “machine to generate joy”.

In apotheotic tributes, the famous duo Dodô and Osmar said goodbye to Carnival.

The company Souza Cruz hired two trios from Tapajós for the city of Rio de Janeiro.

1976

Tapajós animated the carnivals in Salvador, Belo Horizonte and Santos.

Then came the company Tapajós Promoções Artísticas e Publicidade Ltda.

During a concert at Concha Acústica in Salvador, Armandinho released yet another contraption authored by Dodô: a two-necked guitar, dubbed Dodô and Osmar.

The Novos Baianos electric trio appeared on the streets of Salvador for the first time, an equipment that caused a real revolution in the music scene.

The sound of the trio changed completely, going from traditional valve amplifiers and Sedam horns to loudspeakers, tweeters and Snak horns.

The musical language also underwent changes, with the Novos Baianos singing songs from the popular repertoire. Caetano Veloso, Gilberto Gil, Gal Costa and Maria Betânia got together and named the group “Os Doces Bárbaros”.

1977

The electric trio Tapajós also animated the Carnival in Brasilia.

Through the release of the song “Pombo Correio”, the electric trio Dodô e Osmar was specially decorated with a gigantic white bird affixed to the bow of the vehicle, which flapped its wings to the rhythm of the trio's instrumental.

1978

One of the fathers of the electric trio, Adolfo Nascimento, known as Dodô, died.

His burial was accompanied by the Tapajós trio, wrapped in a huge black belt as a sign of mourning, performing the Ave Maria by Gounot and the funeral march by Choppin, in addition to the Hymn to the Lord of Bonfim.

This year, the sound of the afoxés and the electric trio were married, thanks to Moraes Moreira and his partner and poet Antônio Risério, with the release of the song “Assim Pintou Moçambique”.

1979

Three trio cars from the Tapajós company were hired by carnival entities in Salvador.

In the celebration of the third championship of Esporte Clube Flamengo, the Tapajós trio was hired to, to the sound of a frevo specially composed by Moraes Moreira, drag a real crowd of Maracanã fans to Gávea, crossing almost the entire city of Rio de Janeiro.

1980

The electric trio Traz os Montes – in fact, equipment of a carnival entity – paraded for the first time in the streets of Salvador.

Traz os Montes, by the way, established itself as the trio that introduced the most technical novelties at Carnival, having an extraordinarily powerful sound of excellent quality and innovating with all the transistorized equipment.

With a special arrangement by Armandinho, the composition “Beleza Pura”, by Caetano Veloso, was the most performed song by all the electric trios.

The city of Rio de Janeiro opened its Momosque festivities with a confetti battle in Madureira, whose main attraction was the Tapajós electric trio.

In the city of Natal (RN), the presence of three electric trios began to be observed at Carnival, whose constructions had Osmar Macêdo as a consultant.

1981

The new trio of Armandinho, Dodô and Osmar had the song “Vassourinha Elétrica” as its theme, which, in a few weeks, became a bestseller across the country. The electric trio Novos Baianos, led by the only trio singer, Baby Consuelo.

1983

An electric trio built in Italy was inaugurated at Pizza Navona in front of 80 people packed to the sound of Armandinho, Dodô and Osmar's tri-electric band, the “Roman Empire”.

1985

Another electric trio was built in France to make the Carnival in Toulouse.

1986

The electric trio Armandinho, Dodô and Osmar went to the Mexico World Cup and, on their way back, went to France to tour several cities on the French Riviera, ending in Lion.

1988

The Espacial electric trio was created, with a rotating stage and automatic elevation.

1990

The electric trio completed 40 years.

1992

Orlandinho, son of Orlando Campos, rescued the Caetanave trio and paid tribute to his father, promoting the meeting of generations at this Carnival.

1997

The other father of the electric trio, Osmar Macêdo, died and was buried with a procession of electric trios passing at Praça Castro Alves.

1998

A monument in honor of the duo Dodô and Osmar was inaugurated at Praça Castro Alves. The phobic returned to the streets during the Carnival in honor of Osmar.

1999

Percussionist Carlinhos Brown resumed the Caetanave project and brought new equipment to the streets of Salvador.

2000

The phobica and its creators will be honored once again in the year in which the electric trio completes 50 years of existence

Axé Music

Axé Music started with the sound coming from the drums of carnival entities of African origin in the mid-70s.

At this time, Bahia saw the emergence of the Afro blocks "Ilê Ayiê" and the Afoxé "Badauê" and was also accompanied by the rebirth of the Afoxé "Filhos de Gandhy" - later came the Afro blocks "Olodum and Muzenza".

The work of the “afros” and “afoxés” with their rhythms, colors and drums would then have a huge influence on the artists “created” on top of the trios electricians, who, in the early 80s, began to make their own productions and independent.

Despite this, the success of the new musicians was limited to Bahia, thanks to the encouragement and fundamental partnership of the WR studio, Itapoan FM and TV Itapoan. Their time, however, would not fail to come…

In 1985, the song "Fricote" - composed by Paulinho Camafeu and performed by Luiz Caldas - exploded and broke down the existing barriers in the media in the South and Southeast of the country and made the genre called axé music conquer all of Brazil.

Caldas and the band Acordes Verdes opened the doors of the national phonographic industry to Bahian music. Axé music broke a solid structure and was responsible for mixing different musical and rhythmic styles, breaking concepts and prejudices in the way of making the public dance, dress, behave and be entertained.

Not to mention the economic boost it gave to the Bahian economy, through the launch and sale of thousands of CDs, the attraction of tourists, the generation of direct and indirect jobs and the growth of Salvador's Carnival.

The explosion of Bahian songs was also responsible for the reinsertion of Brazilian music in the country's radio stations, since the programming was filled only with North American hits.

It was also after the emergence of axé music that genuinely Brazilian musical styles appeared, such as the sertanejo of the city of São Paulo, the pagode of the city of Rio de Janeiro, the lambada of Pará and the pop of the city of Recife.

After the initial success, the genre continued to spread and gave rise to off-season carnivals in the four corners of Brazil, which have been expanding every year.

Although many compositions have been released in these 20 years of axé music, we present the 20 most played hits in this trajectory. Sources: Jornal A Tarde, Press Office – Emtursa, WR, Ricardo Chaves (singer and producer of the CD “Luiz Caldas e Convidados – 20 Anos de Axé) and journalist Osmar Martins.

YEAR MUSIC BLOCK and SINGER

  • 1985 FRICOTE Luiz Caldas
  • 1986 I AM NEGÃO Geronimo
  • 1987 PHARAOH, DEITY OF EGYPT Olodum
  • 1988 OLODUM PROTEST Bandamel version
  • 1989 KISS IN THE MOUTH Band Beijo
  • 1990 OLODUM REVOLT Olodum
  • 1991 SUMMER PREFIX Bandamel
  • 1992 BAIANIDADE NAGÔ Bandamel
  • 1993 SWEET OBSESSION Smell of Love
  • 1994 REQUEBRA Olodum
  • 1995 NOTIFY THERE Olodum
  • 1996 ARAKETU TOO GOOD Araketu
  • 1997 RAPUNZEL Daniela Mercury
  • 1998 A LATINHA Timbalada
  • 1999 JULIANA Pierre Onasis
  • 2000 RASPADINHO HAIR Bubblegum with Banana
  • 2001 BATE-LATA Banda Beijo
  • 2002 PARTY / SAY IT WAS THANK YOU Ivete Sangalo / Banana gum
  • 2003 DANDALUNDA Margareth Menezes
  • 2004 MAIMBÊ DANDÁ Daniela Mercury
  • 2005 HEART Rapazolla
  • 2006 COFFEE WITH BREAD Vixe Mainha
  • 2007 QUEBRAÊ Asa de Águia
  • 2008 ALL GOOD Psirico

History and Chronology of the Carnival of Salvador da Bahia

Bahia.ws – Tourism Guide for the Northeast, Bahia and Salvador

Leave a Comment

You have to agree to the comment policy.

*

eighteen + 6 =

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your feedback data is processed.

Hide picture