Tourism and History of the Bay of All Saints

Dutch invasion of Salvador da Bahia
Dutch invasion of Salvador da Bahia

Todos os Santos Bay and its hollows constitute an immense amphitheater, where nature, history and culture are shaped to form a beautiful setting for nautical tourism and ecotourism activities.

This grandiose scenery is composed of a vastness of calm waters, from which 56 islands emerge, among which, Itaparica, the largest of them, Maré, Frades, Madre de Deus, Cajaíba, Matarandiba, Bimbarras and the lands of the thirteen municipalities that border the bay.

There are beaches, woods, trails, rivers, waterfalls, rapids, mangroves, ecological reserves, ruins of sugar mills, old churches and old convents, testimonies of the opulence of the rich sugarcane fields that sprouted from the massapé lands.

See the map of Baía de Todos os Santos

Dominating the landscape, rises, facing west, the city ​​of Salvador Baia de Todos os Santos, which for more than two centuries was the capital of Brazil and the most important city in the Americas.

City of art, with its baroque excesses, Salvador's colonial architecture it would be reflected in the towns and cities that were born from the Recôncavo Baiano plantations, in which the urban ideals of Renaissance Portugal can be recognized.

Video about the Bay of All Saints

Tourism and History of the Bay of All Saints

Alongside these strong marks of colonization, a singular miscegenation between European, African and indigenous cultures made possible the emergence of a rich folklore, of an unequaled cooking and artistic manifestations that combine, in the right measure, the influences of the three races.

To ensure the protection of its islands, ordering socioeconomic activities in the region, and preserving places of great ecological significance, in June 1999, the Baía de Todos os Santos Environmental Protection Area was created.

HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS OF BAÍA DE TODOS OD SANTOS

A legend of the Indians recorded by the chroniclers of the early settlement of Brazil narrated that, in the beginning of the world, a large bird with very white feathers departed from far away and, flying nights and days without stopping, reached the coast of an immense land where, exhausted from the long journey, she dropped dead.

Historic map of the Bay of All Saints
Historic map of the Bay of All Saints

Its long white wings, spread on the ground, became white beaches.

In the place where the heart beat the earth, a great and deep depression opened up, which the waters of the sea invaded, and its banks were fertilized by the blood of the legendary bird.

This is how the primitive lords of the land – the Tupinambás – believed that Kirimuré, the vast bay of sweet waters and its Recôncavos, would have been born, which the white European would later name as All Saints Bay.

As little as the records tell us, the first European to penetrate these sheltered waters seems to have been the Portuguese navigator Gaspar de Lemos, commander of the supply ship of the fleet of Pedro Alvares Cabral, charged with taking the letter from Pero Vaz de Caminha with the happy news of the discovery to the King of Portugal, D. Manuel, O Venturoso.

Gaspar de Lemos
Gaspar de Lemos

This messenger ship, which departed from Porto Seguro on May 1500, 1501, bound for Lisbon, he probably anchored at Baía de Todos os Santos on May XNUMXth. However, the official discovery is credited to the Florentine cosmographer Americo Vespucci, who, on November XNUMX, XNUMX, entered the wide bar of this bay, in one of the six ships of the exploratory expedition of Gaspar de Lemos, the same pilot of the messenger ship.

It was customary at that time to name the places where it arrived according to the saint of the calendar day, and so it was called All Saints Bay, the great gulf “capable of sheltering, without confusion, all the fleets in the world”, as described, centuries later, by a foreign traveler visiting Bahia.

Gaspar de Lemos's expedition here lasted about five days.

In a rocky end of the bar that separates the bay from safe waters from the open sea, a stone column was placed – a pattern – that the Portuguese used to place in places they discovered, as a mark of possession and domain of the land.

For many years the place was known as Ponta do Padrão.

fort of Santo Antônio da Barra
fort of Santo Antônio da Barra

Between 1583 and 1587, the monolith with the coat of arms of Portugal was erected, the Santo Antônio da Barra Fort, or Barra Fort, whose lighthouse to this day alerts boats to the presence of rocks and patches at the entrance to the bay.

The place was renamed Farol da Barra, a name that remains.

Folded the end of the pattern is faced with the All Saints Bay in all its vastness.

An immense amphitheater that has a contour of approximately 200 kilometers, cut by coves, creeks, lakes and a small bay, Aratu.

The opening, the large mouth facing south, between Ponta do Padrão and Ponta do Garcez, is about 18 nautical miles (33km). Its straight line extension is 50km, from the opening to the city of São Francisco do Conde; and 35km, west-east direction, from Paripe to the mouth of the Paraguaçu river.

1642 All Saints Bay Map
1642 All Saints Bay Map

Within the bay there are 56 islands of different sizes: Madre de Deus, Frades, Maré, Medo, Grande, Cajaíba, Bimbarras, das Vacas, Maria Guarda, das Fontes, Bom Jesus dos Passos, Pati and in the southwestern portion, the largest of them, Itaparica, with an area of ​​246km.

Halfway along the west side of the bay, the Paraguaçu River flows into the river, an indigenous name meaning large river. About 36 km south of the mouth of the Paraguaçu, the Jaguaripe (or yaguar-y-be, “the jaguar river”) flows into the place known as Barra Falsa da Baía de Todos os Santos.

Tupinambá Indians
Tupinambá Indians

At the beginning of colonial times, the bay and its Recôncavos were inhabited by the Tupinambá Indians who, not long ago, had expelled the Tapuias, primitive lords of the land, to the sertões.

In Bahia, the Tupinambás ruled along the coast, from the mouth of the São Francisco River to beyond the Jaguaripe River, where the territory of the Tupiniquins began.

The vastness of the waters of the Baía de Todos os Santos offered the vessels a safe anchorage, gaining the preference of navigators on the extensive Brazilian coast.

French corsairs since 1504 have visited the unguarded coasts of Bahia. The lucrative clandestine trade in pau-brasil, whose red ink was consumed on a large scale by the fabric industries in the region of Flanders, attracted them.

This traffic reached such proportions that there was a time when it prevailed over the commerce of the Portuguese, the lords of the colony.

The French knew how to make alliances with the Tupinambás, facilitating barter. The interpretation of Eduardo Bueno in his book Capitães do Brasil: the saga of the first settlers is lucid: “the Tupinambás did not need much time to realize that the Portuguese were different from the French.

Unlike the French mair who came to Bahia only to collect the paubrasil – exchanging their goods as friends and, as friends, leaving without arousing suspicions – the Portuguese had come to stay and, in addition to seizing the land, they were willing to enslave the natives”.

In other words, the French did not inspire distrust of the Tupinambás, unlike the Portuguese, who were prospective lords.

For many years the Baía de Todos os Santos did not have a single establishment in Portugal, with trade with the French prevailing, friends of the Indians who inhabited its banks and islands.

In 1526, a Portuguese squadron commanded by Cristóvam Jacques was sent to Brazil to sweep the French corsairs from the coast. When this bodyguard squadron entered the Todos os Santos Bay, it found three French ships carrying Brazil wood in the Paraguaçu River, at the entrance to the lake of Iguape, in a place that to this day is called the island of the French.

The fight took a full day. The French were defeated, and three hundred crew were imprisoned.

The clandestine trade in pau-brasil found in Bahia a sort of mercantile agent for the French: the Portuguese Diogo Álvares Correia, who made history with the legendary name of Caramuru.

Shipwreck of a possibly French ship that, in 1509 or 1511, crashed into the reefs and cliffs on the ocean shore, a league north of the bay, in the place known today as Praia da Mariquita, a name that is a corruption of the Tupi word mairaquiquiig or “French shipwreck”.

The fact that it emerged from the sea among the rocks led the Tupinambás to call it Caray-muru, which in the language of the Gentiles means a fish with an elongated body like the eel that lived among the rocks.

Some authors prefer the name to have come from, "the wet, or drowned white man." The version that the shipwrecked man coming out of the sea fired a shot with the harquebus he had collected on board is nothing but a legend, killing a bird, leaving the Indians perplexed to the point of calling him "son of fire" or "son of Thunder".

Caramuru lived for 47 years among the Tupinambás, having married and left numerous offspring with the famous Paraguaçu Indian, daughter of the powerful chief Taparica, lord of the cannibals of the island of Itaparica. They were married in France, probably in 1525, where India was named and named Catharina, in honor of Queen Catharina de Médicis.

Legend has it that on Caramuru's departure for her overseas wedding, an indigenous woman threw herself into the waters of the bay and swam following the French nau, which was carrying her ungrateful lover, until she met her death. Its legendary name remained: Moema, mbo-em in the language of the Tupinambás, “the fainted one”, the “exhausted one”.

In Baía de Todos os Santos it is difficult to separate the story, based on documents, from the story, the fantasized expression of the facts.

The influence of Caramuru in the early settlements was great. It is curious that French pilots, Brazil wood smugglers, called the pointe du Caramourou the place at the entrance of the bay known by the Portuguese as Ponta do Padrão.

At the end of 1535, the nobleman Francisco Pereira Coutinho arrived in Bahia to populate the captaincy that had been granted to him by King D. João III, through the donation letter signed in Évora on April 1534, XNUMX.

map of hereditary captaincies
map of hereditary captaincies

The Captaincy of Bahia had fifty leagues (300km) to run, counted from the mouth of the São Francisco river to the tip of Baía de Todos os Santos, including the Recôncavo Baiano from there, covering the islands that were found, and to the sertão and terra firme, up to the limit of Castile, the Meridian of Tordesillas.

The donatary captain established himself in the vicinity of the farm where Caramuru lived, with his Indian wife, their Mamluk children and their sons-in-law. On the site, now known as Porto da Barra, Pereira Coutinho built a village on the seafront to be the official headquarters of the Captaincy, Vila Velha or Povoação do Pereira.

About a year later, the grantee orders a donation letter to be drawn up granting a land grant to Caramuru, thus confirming the lands he occupied with his people.

It would not take long for the Tupinambás to realize that this new invading wave of settlers, who came with the grantee, was gradually taking over their lands, forests and rivers.

Furthermore, they oppressed the Gentiles to the condition of slaves, even selling them to other captaincies. This oppression could find no other outcome: the Tupinambás rose up en masse against the invading white.

The trigger for this revolt was due to the death of the son of one of the indigenous chiefs, attributed to a relative of the donee himself.

It is true that Caramuru helped newcomers by supplying food and facilitating relations with the Indians, but he was not an ally of all the Tupinambás. Nor could it be.

There were very numerous Indian villages spread along the coast and into the Reconcavo inland, divided into several tribes, each with its chief, guarding its forests and fishing grounds.

And it was quite common for them to war with each other, taking prisoners who baked and ate at large feasts, or sold as slaves to outsiders.

The Tupinambás united and, with around six thousand warriors – faces dyed with the black of genipap, in alternating bands with the bright red of the annatto, which lent them a terrifying aspect – they burned fences, destroyed plantations, killed several Portuguese and besieged the survivors in Povoação do Pereira.

“Five or six years were spent in great straits”, reported in 1580, the plantation owner and historian Gabriel Soares de Souza, “suffering great hunger, disease and a thousand misfortunes and the Tupinambá Gentile killing people every day”.

As if this war were not enough, the donee still faced the betrayal of some exiled exiles and colonists who, due to internal rivalries in the captaincy, allied with the Indians, inciting them to combat.

As for Caramuru, everything indicates that he did not take a stand against the Indians who besieged the headquarters of the Captaincy. However, it seems to have been he who led the old grantee on the run to the Captaincy of Ilhéus. With that, the Tupinambás devastated the village.

While the Captaincy of Bahia was adrift, the French, friends of the Indians, plotted to install themselves in it, stimulated by the ambition to make Brazil a French possession.

This threat of possible French domination motivated the return of Francisco Pereira Coutinho to his domains. It was Caramuru himself who convinced the grantee to leave Porto Seguro, where he was a refugee, and return to Bahia with the promise of peace offered to the Indians.

In 1547, on the return voyage, the ship carrying Pereira Coutinho collided with the treacherous Pinaúnas reefs, on the southern tip of the island of Itaparica.

This tragic episode was described by Eduardo Bueno: “The grantee and most of his companions were saved, but were arrested by the Tupinambás. Realizing that among the prisoners was Pereira himself, the Tupinambás decided to kill him.

It was a five-year-old Tupinambá who brandished the club, the brother of a native whom Pereira himself had ordered killed. In the ritual of sacrifice, the boy was helped by an adult warrior to deal the blow that ended the life of Francisco Pereira Coutinho.

Next, the tribe devoured the donee's body, in a noisy cannibal feast.

Of the nine years of Pereira Coutinho's administration, almost nothing remains. The plantations that had been implanted in the Recôncavo were burned by the Tupinambás. Vila Velha do Pereira, what was left of it, returned to its initial status as a “simple nest of Mamluks”.

The tragic death of the old and ruined Francisco Pereira Coutinho precipitated the complete overhaul of the administrative regime in Brazil, which has been studied for a long time in Lisbon. Generally speaking, the entire system of hereditary captaincies had failed.

On March 29, 1549, a Friday, before the sun disappeared behind the island of Itaparica, the prows of three large ships, two caravels and a brigantine, entered the quiet waters of Baía de Todos os Santos. He commanded the Portuguese fleet, Tomé de Souza, “Captain of the town and lands of Bahia de Todos os Santos and Governor of the lands of Brazil”, titles he had held since his appointment on January 1549, XNUMX.

He came to found “a large and strong fortress and village”, the city of Salvador da Baía de Todos os Santos.

A few months before the Governor's arrival, an emissary from the king carried a letter to Diogo Álvares Caramuru announcing the arrival of the armada and, above all, that he should make a reserve of supplies for Tomé de Souza and his entourage.

With the death of the grantee, Caramuru had become the most important man in the Captaincy and had already obtained from the Tupinambás the promise of cooperation with the “new” colonizers.

Although the skirmishes with the Indians did not end, the Governor, with Caramuru's help, managed to begin to establish peace between the settlers and the Indians.

Further into the bay, to the north, a little less than half a league from Vila do Pereira under one of the bluest skies in the world, the Governor planted the fortress city on top of a cliff, facing west, dominating the bay. of All Saints.

The Indians cooperated with the numerous artisans who, under the orders of Master Luis Dias, built the city.

Initially mud huts, then stone and lime houses came, and the city would rise arrogantly, seventy meters high, looking out over the bay; and it would become a city of art, with its baroque excesses and its animist cults, the metropolis of Baía de Todos os Santos and its Recôncavos, the city of Bahia, seat of the Portuguese colonial government for 214 years.

Eight years after the founding of the city of Salvador, in 1557, the death ended the troubled life of Diogo Álvares, Caramuru.

It fell to Mem de Sá, third General Governor of Brazil, to pacify the wild Indians with the help of Jesuit missionaries.

When it became necessary, the Governor did not hesitate to invade the lands of the uprising tribes and destroy the villages that tried to resist. More than one hundred and thirty villages were destroyed. Mem de Sá was the great promoter of sugarcane culture in the region.

It even built a real mill with its water wheel to receive the canes of farmers who did not have their own mill. In the lands of massapê, deep clay that sticks to shoes, mills flourished.

Sugarcane farming and sugar manufacturing have become typical and basic activities in the Recôncavos region.

Sugar cane fields and sugar mills bordered the entire bay, from Salvador to Barra do Jiquiriça and the lands of Jaguaripe, where Gabriel Soares implanted his sugar mills; they spread across the boards of Santo Amaro and São Francisco do Conde, and up the mighty Paraguaçu.

sugar culture in colonial Brazil
sugar culture in colonial Brazil

In the last quarter of the XNUMXth century, there already existed in the Recôncavo a good number of owners of vast sesmarias and sugar mills well mounted, with a large number of slaves. These plantations were not simple farms, they were villages.

From them, the towns and cities of the Recôncavo were born.

For a long time, communication between these cities was made exclusively by the Baía de Todos os Santos and the rivers that flow into it. Then came the railroads and highways that broke the isolation. The mills were transformed into sugar mills.

Tobacco occupied the lands of the Cachoeira – São Félix – Maragogipe complex. In the XNUMXth century, the tall silhouettes of oil wells dotted the fields, where the wind had once whipped the cane fields. Industries appeared.

A new era of transformations. The prosaic sloops and steamships gradually gave way to schooners, sailboats and catamarans.
Automobiles now navigate the waters of the bay in the belly of ferry boats.

However, the testimonies of the past remained in the austere architecture of colonial mansions with their facades covered in Portuguese tiles, in monumental churches, in the silence of the convent cloisters, in the water wheels of the mills, in the silver implements and in the imagery of the altars, in the ships and caravels that sleep under the water, in the cannons of the old forts that still stalk the horizons guarding the bay and in the mestizo memory of the people of Bahia de Todos os Santos.

THE GREAT VOCATION OF THE BAY OF ALL SAINTS

Delimited at its ends by Farol da Barra and Ponta do Garcez, Baía de Todos os Santos mixes beauty, history and culture, visualized in handicraft, typical cuisine and architecture, which transforms it into a great setting for nautical tourism and tourism activities. ecotourism.

This scenario is composed of a surface of calm waters measuring 1.052 Km2 in length, shelters islands, beaches and receives fresh water from numerous rivers and streams, the main ones being the Paraguaçu, Jaguaripe and Subaé, in addition to leaning in one of the at its ends, the first capital of Brazil and the largest in the Northeast: Salvador da Bahia.

In its surroundings are located the municipalities of Itaparica, Vera Cruz, Jaguaripe, Nazaré, Salinas da Margarida, Maragogipe, São Félix, Cachoeira, Santo Amaro, Saubara, São Francisco do Conde, Madre de Deus and Candeias, among many others that make up the Recôncavo Baiano.

In Bahia, the word Recôncavo gained a new dimension, with a capital letter, to identify the region around this bay.

To ensure the protection of its islands, organizing the socio-economic activities present in the area and preserving places of great ecological significance, the Todos os Santos Bay Environmental Protection Area was created through State Decree no. 7.595, of June 5, 1999.

The APA has an approximate surface area of ​​800km2, including the waters and islands of the Bay that have remnants of Atlantic Forest, mangroves and sandbanks, sheltering diversified flora and fauna.

NAUTICAL TOURISM IN ALL SANTOS BAY

In the past, it was the largest seaport in the Southern Hemisphere and today it is the target of large public and private investments aimed at increasing nautical tourism and ecotourism.

A large private marina has already been implemented in the Todos os Santos Bay, near the Elevador Lacerda, which now houses 300 spaces for boats.
of any size, with all the modern infrastructure available.

On the other hand, the Centro Náutico da Bahia, an initiative of the State Government, in addition to housing vessels, promotes and coordinates nautical activities in the State.

Traditional regattas such as Saveiros João das Botas, Aratu – Maragogipe to the international oceanic Rally les Iles du Soleil and Hong Kong Challenger, take place throughout the summer season and beyond.

The Mar Grande – Salvador crossing is the main competition that takes place annually in the interior of the Bay, during the summer.

In addition to this, there are other events within the Bahia Open Water Circuit: Salinas, Itaparica – Ponta de Areia, Itacaranha – Ribeira, São Tomé de Paripe – Porto da Barra.

The capture of nautical events for the Baía de Todos os Santos is based on its historical trajectory, which has already seen it dock in its sheltered waters from ships and caravels, canoes of native inhabitants, sloops - which over time became the vessel and The area's most characteristic mode of transport – modern ocean-going sailboats, luxury liners, even England's Queen Elizabeth's yacht.

The biggest and main celebration that takes place annually in its waters is the Procession of Senhor Bom Jesus dos Navegantes, on the first of January, when the Gratitude of the People galley carries the image of Bom Jesus on a long journey from the Porto Pier to Porto from Barra and from there to the Church of Boa Viagem, accompanied by hundreds of boats.

Another unique aspect of Baía de Todos os Santos is the combination of the beauty of the natural and historical scenarios, hidden under its waters. These scenarios reveal surprises for diving enthusiasts, who are faced with the formation of coral reefs and wreckage from shipwrecks during their colonization.

It is good to know that in front of Porto da Barra, at a depth of 12 meters and with a visibility of 10 to 15 meters, there are beautiful coral reefs. For experienced divers, the outside corals or “Parede” are located in the middle of the Bay, between Itaparica and Salvador. The cliffs, one mile from Salvador, are between 25 and 45 meters deep and, at high tide, visibility varies between 15 and 20 meters.

The coral and reef formations near the islands of Maré have a maximum depth of 11 meters and visibility of up to 15 meters horizontally.

Opposite the harbor pier, on the North breakwater, there is an interesting spot for night dives with a large amount of marine life. Opposite Aratuba beach, in Itaparica, the coral reefs Pontinha and Caramunhãs, two miles off the coast, offer a rich underwater landscape.

The ghosts of history have also become a target of interest for divers looking for treasure, research or curiosity.

Among battles, invasions and storms, several ships sank in Todos os Santos Bay and the best known and historically recorded are: The ship Nossa Senhora de Jesus, 1610 – attacked by Dutch from the Companhia das Índias sank in front of the Fort of Santo Antônio da Barra, at the entrance to the Bay; seven Portuguese ships, 1624 – were set on fire and sank in front of the slope of the current Avenida Contorno; two Flemish ships and one Lusitanian, 1627 – went to the bottom of the sea on Praia da Preguiça during a fight between the Portuguese and the Dutch for possession of the city of Salvador; two Dutch ships and one Portuguese, 1647 – sank after another sea battle near the Fort of Monte Serrat, the ship Santa Escolástica, 1648 – sank on the way out of the Bay; the galleon Nossa Senhora do Bom Sucesso, 1700 – sank in front of Preguiça beach; Spanish galleon San Pedro, 1714 – sank in the same place; Galleon Nossa Senhora do Rosário, 1737 – sank in Monte Serrat loaded with jewels, gold, crockery, amber and pepper; the wreckage of the Brittany ship, known as “Navio de Dentro”, is close to Farol da Barra, protected by corals, and is an ideal spot for baptism dives.

ECOTOURISM IN ALL SANTOS BAY

The verb to conjugate is always present when talking about Baía de Todos os Santos: to combine the sea and the land, the old and the new, the legends and the history. Thus, the “discovery” look of ecotourists is faced with the possibilities of visiting their islands and the Recôncavo Baiano region, where the marks of Portuguese colonization and the miscegenation between European, African and indigenous cultures are strong.

The 56 islands that make up the Todos os Santos Bay archipelogo have common characteristics, such as beaches with crystal clear waters, calm seas, dense vegetation, predominantly mangroves, coconut trees and banana trees, in addition to vestiges of the Atlantic Forest.

Of the existing islands, the main ones are: Itaparica – the largest maritime island in Brazil -, Madre de Deus, Maré, Frades, Fear, Bom Jesus dos Passos, Vacas, Capeta, Maria Guarda, Joana, Bimbarras, Santo Antônio, Cajaíba, Cal , São Gonçalo, Matarandiba, Saraíba, Mutá, Yellow Eye, Caribbean, Malacaia, Pigs, Carapitubas, Reeds, Ponta Grossa, Fontes, Pati, Santos, Coconut trees, Itapipuca, Large, Small, Madeira, Arrival, Topet, Guarapira, Monte Cristo , White Crown and Uruabo.

The Recôncavo Baiano, rich in folklore, cuisine and the arts of its dark people, shows the marks of its past in historic cities and in the almost 400 old sugar mills that populated the region during the colonization of Brazil.

It guards a past of riches and heroic acts of its people who, practically unarmed, fought against foreign invasions and planters united in support of D. Pedro I, fighting bravely against the Portuguese, for the independence of Brazil.

Getting to know the Recôncavo Baiano is to be dazzled by the Baroque architecture of the XNUMXth century, in cities such as Cachoeira, São Félix, Santo Amaro, Jaguaripe and Nazaré, which were born, developed and experienced luxury and opulence during the sugarcane cycles. -from sugar, tobacco and cattle.

With the abolition of slavery in Brazil, the economy of the Recôncavo went into decline and the planters went bankrupt.

The families of the main house moved to the provincial capital, leaving behind towns, cities, beautiful colonial buildings and the massape lands. A world of memories that has fallen apart over time.

It is also to delight in the typical cuisine that combines, in the right measure, the influences of the three races in dishes drizzled with palm oil and the most varied sweets, liqueurs and brandies; it is to discover hidden natural beauties in the Paraguaçu and Jaguaripe rivers throughout the area of ​​influence of their estuaries in the Baía de Todos os Santos, in the lake of Iguape, on the beaches of Saubara.

Religiosity, mysticism and history are the hallmarks of the Recôncavo, which is framed by extensive cane fields, rich mangroves and what remains of the tropical forest.

History and Tourism of the Bay of All Saints

2 Comments

  1. Patrizia Licini of Romagnoli

    I went solo Americo Vespucci with his ship and with another ship I gave Portoghesi superstition with lui dopo the defezione of the captain's loro maggiore on 18 August 1503, the riprendere the navigazione and the trovare a port at which the name of the Abbazia di Ognissanti (« omnium sanctorum Abbaciam nuncupavimus»), precisely on the 5th settembre 1503 in the fourth edition of the last navigation of Vespucci. Trovate l'attestazione certification in “Cosmographiae introductio”, 'Navigatio Quarta, fol. iii, the only source authorizzata dalla Gran Prepositura di Saint-Dié 25 aprile 1507, Ducato di Lotaringia (Lorraine), Germania in questo tempo della storia.
    Available for any clarification.
    Con i miei migliori saluti. Patrizia Licini of Romagnoli

  2. Pingback: Bahia is the main tourist destination in the Northeast - maps and videos

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